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The woodland

In the subalpine zone, directly below the crooked wood zone, the natural landscape is woodland.
The generic term “upper timberline” applies to the upper altitudinal limits of forest and tree growth in the mountains, extending upwards from the forest limit, across the tree line, to the Krummholz zone, where only contorted shrubs are able to grow. The upper timberline is also called Kampfzone (Ger.) “zone of struggle”, in recognition of the severe growing conditions that trees must face, but also reflecting the dynamic nature, i.e. fluctuating altitudinal levels, of forest limit, tree line and Krummholz limit.
The habitat here called “Woodland” refers to the natural or original landscape that existed before man’s arrival, when continuous forests covered Alpine valleys and mountain slopes up to at least 2500m altitude. Hence, this category also includes habitats such as hay meadows, Alpine pastures around the malghe (malghe are high-altitude summer farms where dairy cattle is grazed in the summer) and even villages although, at present, none of these are wooded.
The woodland
 
The woodland